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White Papers

We define white paper as a report that is near-publication quality; however, has not yet been submitted for peer review according to the standard rules of science. Often these are papers that have presented at conferences. Additional copy-editing may be required before a final draft is ready for submission to a scientific journal.

An Evaluation of Remote Viewing: Research and Applications

Michael D. Mumford, Andrew M. Rose, and David A. Goslin (American Institutes for Research)

ABSTRACT: Studies of paranormal phenomena have nearly always been associated with controversy. Despite the controversy concerning their nature and existence, many individuals and organizations continue to be avidly interested in these phenomena. The intelligence community is no exception: beginning in the 1970s, it has conducted a program intended to investigate the application of one paranormal phenomenon—remote viewing, or the ability to describe locations one has not visited.

Conceptually, remote viewing would seem to have tremendous potential utility for the intelligence community. Accordingly, a three-component program involving basic research, operations, and foreign assessment has been in place for some time. Prior to transferring this program to a new sponsoring organization within the intelligence community, a thorough program review was initiated.

The part of the program review conducted by the American Institutes for Research (AIR), a nonprofit, private research organization, consisted of two main components. The first component was a review of the research program. The second component was a review of the operational application of the remote viewing phenomenon in intelligence gathering. Evaluation of the foreign assessment component of the program was not within the scope of the present effort. (468 KB -- PDF)


Psychic Bull In India

Edwin C. May, Ph.D. with Isaac Bonewits

ABSTRACT: This is an article mainly written by Bonewits about May's nearly a year in India from 1974 to 1975. May did some unofficial work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center and lived with his long-time friend and colleague, Dr. S. Gangadharan. He used Gangadharan's home as a base of operations to search South India for psychic miracles. This article is a narrative of that odyssey. (1,687 KB -- PDF)

Global Consciousness Project:
An Independent Analysis of
the 11 September 2001 Events

Edwin C. May, Ph.D. and S. James P. Spottiswoode, B.Sc

ABSTRACT: We have conducted an independent analysis of the worldwide network of random number generators called EGG's by the Global Conscious Project (GCP) personnel. At the time we found direct contradictory statements with regard to the proper protocol between a published account and an account posted on the GCP web site (Subsequently, this inadvertent ambiguity has been corrected.) We provide, nonetheless, our analyses of both proposed methods.

The formal test hypothesis according to the published protocol, namely that there would be at least a significant deviation (i.e., p = 0.05) of the accumulation of chi-square, which was derived from squaring the Stouffer's Z across valid EGG's at each second, was satisfied. However, we show that the choice was fortuitous in that had the analysis window been a few minutes shorter or 30 minutes longer, the formal test would not have achieved significance. We discuss the implications of this finding.

The alternative analysis based upon the instructions posted on the GCP website, however, showed chance deviations throughout.
We also provide verification of a separate analysis posted by Dr. Dean Radin, but we differ markedly with regard to the posted conclusions. Using Radin's analysis, we do not find significant evidence that the GCP network's EGG's responded to the New York City attacks in real time. Radin's computation of 6000:1 odds against chance during the events are accounted for by a not-unexpected local deviation that occurred approximately 3 hours before the attacks.

We conclude that the network random number generators produced data consistent with mean chance expectation during the worst single day tragedy in American history.
(391 KB - PDF)

Unconventional Human Intelligence Support: Transcendent and Asymmetric Warfare Implications of Remote Viewing

Commander L. R. Bremseth, United States Navy
(Posted here with permission)

ABSTRACT: Concerned that a psychical (PSI) gap existed between U.S. and Soviet paranormal research efforts, the CIA sponsored discreet research into paranormal phenomena commencing in 1972. Over the succeeding twenty-three years, the U.S. military and intelligence services were actively involved in paranormal research and operations involving a process known as remote viewing. Remote viewing, which produced specialized human intelligence support, served as part of overall military and government organizations' intelligence collection efforts. In 1995, after assuming remote viewing program management responsibilities from the DIA, the CIA decided to terminate the program based on a controversial review conducted by the American Institutes for Research. Yet, remote viewing's demonstrated capacity for providing unique, non-technical intelligence support posits said program as a leading candidate for exploring currently evolving forms of warfare. Presented within is a brief history of the remote viewing program, an examination of its evolution over the course of more than twenty-three years, and a discussion of its continuing relevance to national security and emerging warfare trends.
(498 KB - PDF)

A Methodological Issue in the Study of Correlation between Psychophysiological Variables

E. C. May, Parapsychological Association Meeting, New York, NY (1991)

ABSTRACT: We used previously accumulated skin conductance (SC) and EEG data to examine the effects of their respective autocorrelations upon hypothesis testing.  We found that SC data remain autocorrelated for many seconds, and that EEG data remain autocorrelated for many fractions of a second depending upon filtering parameters.  We show that the effect of these non-zero autocorrelations upon the interpretation of correlation coefficients using normal statistics can lead to substantial and artifactually inflated significance levels.  With SC, for example, the high autocorrelation can lead to a Pearson’s r correlation of 1.0 even under the null hypothesis.  The resulting null-hypothesis z-score distribution range is [-20,20]; whereas, is should be approximately in the range [-3,3].  Alpha EEG, while less autocorrelated than SC, still leads to Pearson’s r correlations in the range [-0.4,0.4] leading to a null-hypothesis z-score distribution in the range [-15,15].  Beta band EEG reduces the null-hypothesis z-score range to [-5,5].  We demonstrate that standard Monte Carlo techniques can provide valid estimates of the significance levels.  The underlying assumptions of conventional statistical tests can be easily ignored, and the resulting error may become embedded into the thinking of a research community.  As an example, we critically review a paper claiming significant correlation between the EEG’s of isolated subjects (Grinberg-Zylberbaum, Delaflor, Attie, and Goswami, 1994); however, using uncorrelated EEG data from one of our previous studies and Monte Carlo methods to model the true null hypothesis, we compute a non-significant difference (Z = 1.22) between their non-“correlated” subjects and their “correlated” ones.  As a result of their, possibly incorrect, interpretation of these correlations there is a growing literature proclaiming that these experiments are evidence for EPR-like quantum connections in isolated brains.  These putative connections have been used as explanations, or at least plausibility arguments, for a variety of phenomena including distant healing.
(318 KB - PDF)

The Possible Role of Intention, Attention and Expectation in Remote Viewing

Joseph W. McMoneagle & Edwin C. May, Parapsychological Association Meeting, Vienna, Austria (2004)

ABSTRACT: Joseph W. McMoneagle has participated in 44 on-camera demonstrations of remote viewing 35 of which would be considered as successful; that is, if they had been assed by the usual blind rank-order method, they would have easily been ranked correctly in first place.  The question we address here is, “What, if anything, is special about these cases?”  Under US Government funding, the research track record of what is known as STARGATE was exceptional.  Perhaps the success could be attributed to the near exclusive use of highly talented special participants.  However, we speculate here that the ill-defined concepts of intention, attention, and expectation were/are major contributors to the success of application-oriented, laboratory, and media-centered trials.  As an illustration of these points, we provide a detailed description of the protocol and results of a recent demonstration trial conducted for the National Geographic Channel that was carried out in LFR’s remote viewing laboratory in Palo Alto, California.  The produces and staff of Pioneer Productions dedicated one individual for four days just to prepare for the shoot.  Her duties were to learn about what constitutes a good remote viewing target, identify 6 targets within 25 km from the laboratory, prepare two sets of target packs, identify a neutral 3rd party individual to secure these materials, and act as beacon person during the trial.  The full team included a camera crew of three and a single producer.  At the time of the trial all people present with the viewer were blind not only to the individual randomly selected target but also to the complete six-fold target pack.  The response was blind rank-order assessed on-camera, and the correct target was matched as 1st place.  The qualitative correspondence with the intended site was excellent and typical of the 35 of 44 other media trials provided by McMoneagle.  This single trial serves as an exemplar of an ideal application of intention, attention, and expectation.
(231 KB - PDF)

A Target Pool and Database for Anomalous Cognition Experiments

E. C. May & L. V. Faith
The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Palo Alto, CA


M. Blackman, B. Bourgeois, N. Kerr, & L. Woods
The Rhine Research Center, Nurham, NC.

Parapsychological Association Meeting, Stanford, CA(1999)

ABSTRACT: Based upon our earlier work with anomalous cognition target pools and fuzzy set analysis, we have constructed a new target pool of 300 images.  These have been derived from the Corel Stock Photo Library of Professional Photographs.  This library of copyright-free images is in digital form and comprises 100 images on each of 200 CD-ROM’s.  All 300 images meet a set of predefined cognitive, thematic, and size constraints.  The images were scored against 50 potential fuzzy set elements by six independent coders.  We selected 24 of the 50 elements and constructed a qualitative consensus score from the six coders as the fuzzy set representations of the target photographs.  As a check on the veracity of the coding, we examined the set using cluster analysis.  We found that the images grouped cleanly into categories that contained images that were equivalent, and these categories grouped into units that were different from one another.  Additionally, the average entropy, its average gradient, and total entropy was computed for each image.  All of this information was entered into an Access 97 database.
(285 KB - PDF)

Anomalous Cognition: Two Protocols for Data Collection and Analysis

E. C. May
The Laboratories for Fundamental Research, Palo Alto, CA

Visakhapatnam, AP, India (January 2006)

ABSTRACT: This white paper describes in detail two data collection methodologies for what is known as anomalous cognition (a.k.a. remote viewing).  Both methodologies are heuristic rituals rather than protocols that were developed under a systematic approach; however, they both have produced a substantial number of significant results in the laboratory and in various application environments.  They are designed, at least in principle, to reduce the likelihood of a participant adding too much to the response that was self-generated either by memory, expectation, or logical inference.  In addition, they provide a putative technique to illicit information from those participants who appear to be “stuck.”  That is, those who are unable to report anything.  The first of these is based in a stimulus/response analogy, whereas the second is more “free form” that was used in the early days of anomalous cognition research.
The most common form of analysis is rank-order assessment.  In this technique, an analyst is presented with a single anomalous cognition response and five photographs one of which is the intended target for a session.  The analyst’s task is to pick which photograph best matches the response, second-best match, and so on.  This matching procedure is independent of the quality of the putative match.

The quality of the match—sometimes referred to as an assessment—is conducted by a fuzzy set technique.  In this approach, all the targets in the pool of 300 have previously been consensus encoded with regard to their cognitive content.  The analyst, who is blind to the encoding of the intended target for the session, encapsulates the response with same set of potential cognitive elements that was used in the coding of the target pool.  From these data, a simple calculation constructs the accuracy (i.e., how much of the intended target that was described correctly) and the reliability (i.e., how much of the response that was correct).  The assessment for the trial is the product of accuracy and reliability—called Figure of Merit.
(731 KB - PDF)


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